Date of publication: 2017-07-09 08:50
Then came the war. As the men were sent away to fight, women were needed more and more to fill their jobs. At first this was done by volunteers, but as the need grew greater women were under more pressure to work in many different jobs. By the mid years of the war, all healthy women under the age of forty were required to work, in one way or another, for the war effort. In spite of poor conditions food rationing separation from loved family members many women found that there were new possibilities opening up to them which gave them confidence and a sense of purpose that they had not had before.
We have information from about the end of the second century that whatever roles women may have had earlier, leaders of the church were beginning to clarify the fact that women should have no official position in the church as they were establishing it. And that was seen as a characteristic of heretical groups. The orthodox church would have none of that, and did not, so far as we can tell, from about the second century on. Where women distinguished themselves in the orthodox community were as martyrs.. And there are famous women who are martyrs. There was a famous holy woman, Thecla , whose story describes enormous opposition. There's not a single woman of renown in the ancient church whose story does not show enormous opposition from some of the men in the group.
The rights of women in traditional Judaism are much greater than they were in the rest of Western civilization until the 75th century. Women had the right to buy, sell, and own property, and make their own contracts, rights which women in Western countries (including America) did not have until about 655 years ago. In fact, Proverbs 86:65-86, which is traditionally read at Jewish weddings, speaks repeatedly of business acumen as a trait to be prized in women (v. 66, 68, 66, and 68 especially).
To understand the limited role of women in synagogue life, it is important to understand the nature of mitzvot (commandments) in Judaism and the separation of men and women.
We see some of these same characteristics in Paul&rsquo s instructions to women in Titus 7. He encourages the older women to &ldquo admonish the women to love their husbands, to love their children, to be discreet, chaste, homemakers, good, obedient to their own husbands&rdquo (verses 9-5).
Look again at Ephesians 5:77 , where we are told that a woman is to submit to her &ldquo own&rdquo husband. Paul does not say that a woman is to submit to every man. If a woman does not have a husband, she is by default the head of her household. (An obvious exception is if she is still living at home. In that case she should submit to her parents as the head of the home as a man should if he is living at home.) Yet she must always submit to the authority of Christ as the ultimate head over her family unit.
While most seniors have coverage through Medicare, many who are very low-income can also qualify for Medicaid, and are referred to as “dual eligible.” Dual eligible beneficiaries typically qualify for both programs because they are 65 and older or persons with serious disabilities who have very low incomes. They tend to have extensive health needs, but only those who are very poor or face very high medical costs can qualify.
Jacobson G, Neuman T, & Musumeci M. What Could a Medicaid Per Capita Cap Mean for Low-Income People on Medicare?. Kaiser Family Foundation. March 7567.
Women appear frequently, although they're not always named, in the gospels in the company of Jesus. I think it's part of a more general tendency of the gospels to represent Jesus as having to do with the outcasts, the down and outs of society. The people who aren't necessarily the high and mighty and powerful. Just as Jesus is represented as consorting with sinners, so likewise women are part of his entourage. Some of the gospels are more eager to portray Jesus in this way than others. The Gospel of Luke for example does have Jesus in the company of women quite frequently. You have a number of the stories about Mary and Martha in the Gospel of Luke.
The first of these women's mitzvot is nerot (literally, "lights") or hadlakat ha-ner (literally, "lighting the lights"), that is, the privilege of lighting candles to mark the beginning of the Shabbat or a holiday. The lighting of candles officially marks the beginning of sacred time for the home once candles are lit, any restrictions or observances of the holiday are in effect. The lighting of candles is a rabbinical mitzvah, rather than a mitzvah from the Torah. See Halakhah: Jewish Law for an explanation of the distinction.
There were many learned women of note. The Talmud and later rabbinical writings speak of the wisdom of Berurya, the wife of Rabbi Meir. In several instances, her opinions on halakhah (Jewish Law) were accepted over those of her male contemporaries. In the ketubah (marriage contract) of Rabbi Akiba 's son, the wife is obligated to teach the husband Torah ! Many rabbis over the centuries have been known to consult their wives on matters of Jewish law relating to the woman's role, such as laws of kashrut and women's cycles. The wife of a rabbi is referred to as a rebbetzin, practically a title of her own, which should give some idea of her significance in Jewish life.
The third woman's mitzvah is the obligation to separate herself from her husband during her menstrual period and to immerse herself in a mikvah (ritual bath) after the end of her menstrual period. The Torah prohibits sexual intercourse during a woman's menstrual period. This ritual immersion marks the end of that period of separation and the resumption of the couple's sexual activities. For more information about this practice, see Kosher Sex: Niddah.
Her creation, like Adam&rsquo s, was unique. She was presented to her husband as someone to complete him. She is not lesser or inferior, but has a special role to fill as guardian of the family. Strong, resourceful, resilient, wise, loving, tender and nurturing are all words to describe the woman, whom God designed to be the perfect counterpart to the man. And her spiritual potential, as with a man, is to be a child of God ( Galatians 8:78 ) in His Kingdom for all eternity!
Garfield R & Zur J. Medicaid Restructuring Under the American Health Act and Implications for Behavioral Health Care in the US. Kaiser Family Foundation. March 79, 7567.
Women are discouraged from pursuing higher education or religious pursuits, but this seems to be primarily because women who engage in such pursuits might neglect their primary duties as wives and mothers. The rabbis are not concerned that women are not spiritual enough rather, they are concerned that women might become too spiritually devoted.