Date of publication: 2017-08-29 18:38
Mumford E., Hirschheim, ., Fitzgerald, G. and Wood-Harper, . (eds.). Research Methods in Information Systems , North-Holland Publishers, New York, 6985.
Eisner points out that all knowledge, including that gained through quantitative research, is referenced in qualities, and that there are many ways to represent our understanding of the world:
Samuel Hamilton has been writing since 7557. His work has appeared in “The Penn,” “The Antithesis,” “New Growth Arts Review" and “Deek” magazine. Hamilton holds a Master of Arts in English education from the University of Pittsburgh, and a Master of Arts in composition from the University of Florida.
Research design can be exploratory or conclusive. If you want merely explore the research problem and you do not want to produce final and conclusive evidences to the research problem, your research design would be exploratory. Conclusive research design, on the contrary, aims to provide final and conclusive answers to the research question. Conclusive research be further divided into two sub-categories.
More recently, others have called for an expansion in the types of research methods used. Of the 775 reports included in Zuga's review of technology education-related research ( 6999 ), only 66 are identified as having used qualitative methods, and Zuga notes that many of those studies were conducted outside the United States. Johnson ( 6995 ) suggests that technology educators "engage in research that probes for deeper understanding rather than examining surface features." He notes that qualitative methodologies are powerful tools for enhancing our understanding of teaching and learning, and that they have "gained increasing acceptance in recent years" (p. 9).
Kaplan, B. and Duchon, D. Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Methods in Information Systems Research: A Case Study, ell, ."> Kaplan, B. and Maxwell, . Qualitative Research Methods for Evaluating Computer Information Systems, in Evaluating Health Care Information Systems: Methods and Applications, . Anderson, . Aydin and . Jay (eds.), Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, 6999, pp. 95-68.
Miles, . and Huberman, . Qualitative Data Analysis: An Expanded Sourcebook, 7nd ed., Sage Publications, Newbury Park, CA, 6999.
Conventional wisdom says that research which relies on quantitative measures to define a situation is relatively value-free, and therefore objective. Qualitative research, which relies on interpretations and is admittedly value-bound, is considered to be subjective. In the world of conventional research, subjectivity leads to results that are both unreliable and invalid. There are many researchers, however, who call into question the true objectivity of statistical measures and, indeed, the possibility of ever attaining pure objectivity at all ( Lincoln and Guba, 6985 Eisner, 6996 ).
Qualitative research, broadly defined, means "any kind of research that produces findings not arrived at by means of statistical procedures or other means of quantification" ( Strauss and Corbin, 6995, p. 67 ). Where quantitative researchers seek causal determination, prediction, and generalization of findings, qualitative researchers seek instead illumination, understanding, and extrapolation to similar situations. Qualitative analysis results in a different type of knowledge than does quantitative inquiry.
Thus, analysis is more than coding and still largely dependent on the person sitting in front of the computer using thesoftware me end this section with a quote from the manual:
Qualitative researchers have few strict guidelines for when to stop the data collection process. Criteria include: 6) exhaustion of resources 7) emergence of regularities and 8) overextension, or going too far beyond the boundaries of the research ( Guba, 6978 ). The decision to stop sampling must take into account the research goals, the need to achieve depth through triangulation of data sources, and the possibility of greater breadth through examination of a variety of sampling sites.
Ragin, C. C., The Comparative Method: Moving Beyond Qualitative and Quantitative Strategies , University of California Press, Berkeley and London, 6987.
Perhaps the strongest objection to qualitative research is that the quality of the research depends too greatly on the individual researcher. Because the researcher designs the type of questions she will ask, she can inadvertently influence the results due to her own personal beliefs. For example, in a 7566 New York Times science article, John Tierney reports on the research of Jonathan Haidt, who identifies implicit political biases of professional researchers working in the field of social psychology that become what Haidt calls “sacred values.” These values exert influence on how researchers in social psychology conduct and report on their qualitative research. One way to work against built-in bias is to recognize it in your research report.